Performance gains are achieved in a number of different ways using Deep Cryogenic Treatment for various components.
Treated parts remain in an optimal condition for longer giving superior performance over an untreated part. This is particularly ideal for parts which are replaced before each round because there is less performance drop off while they remain "as new" for much longer.
Some parts may be regulated or mandatory so being able to improve the performance of that part will certainly give a competitive advantage. Crucially the parts remain dimensionally unchanged and visually identical.
SIGNIFICANT COST SAVINGS
Cryo'd parts will require replacing much less frequently as both failure and wear rates are significantly reduced. Apart from the obvious cost saving of the replacement part due to extended service intervals, there can also be plenty of man hours associated with replacing parts, not to mention the inconvenience of a failure during testing or race weekend.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
As engine components get to running temperature they are likely to distort, ever-so-slightly, causing minor wear spots and small movements from when they were set and tuned. One of the main reasons is that when components are manufactured, stress is put into the item by the very method that makes them. When the part gets to working temperature the material relaxes and the stress is relieved causing the component to move, twist and distort.
The cryogenic process will dramatically reduce the amount of stored stress within a component by "relaxing" the material as unified bonds are created between the crystals of the metal which enables the component to expand in a more uniform way as it reaches it's designed operating temperature.
The stress relieving properties of cryogenics work for both ferrous (by transforming austenite into martensite) and non-ferrous metals (by stabilising the crystalline structure previously set unevenly on fabrication).
WEAR / FATIGUE
Furthermore wear and fatigue occurs where the material is at it's weakest due to imperfections in the casting process as the material is initially formed. Deep sub-zero treatment see these weakest areas gain the most as ETA Carbides are formed when the crystalline structure undergoes it's transformation.
The continuous movement of metal against metal causes minute amounts of material to be removed. Over extended periods, over a race even, these small amounts add together to produce a significant loss of material dimensionally reducing those parts causing a decline in performance.
Cryogenics will significantly reduce the amount of wear on a wide range of engine and drive train components giving the advantages of maintaining engine performance and reducing team running costs.
WHICH PARTS SHOULD I CRYO?
For some teams we will treat an entire disassembled engine, since the cam, crank, pistons, rods etc are all great candidates for increasing toughness and durability. However if you are experiencing problems with specific parts (e.g. valve failure) it can make more sense to just have that specific component treated.
Brake discs can see phenomenal benefits from Deep Cryogenic Treatment as wear rates are significantly reduced leading to discs lasting 2, 3 or 4 times longer. It will also strengthen them reducing the risk of ridges, warping or failure.
It's also a great idea to Cryo gear sets (diffs, gearboxes etc) particularly as these are under huge load particularly on modified cars where they may not have been intended to cope with such an increase in power.